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10BetAPP怎么下载_双语精要丨双减政策与学校体育发展

时间:2022/3/5 14:43:44   作者:admin   来源:   阅读:153   评论:0
内容摘要:  十年树木,百年树人,现今处于义务教育阶段的青少年很大程度上决定着未来30年中国的发展。2021年,“双减”政策出台以来,许多教育专家对学校教育的未来和青少年的健康发展进行了积极的讨论和深刻的思考。  本期精选内容以“双减”政策背景下的学校体育这一主题,推荐文章《“双减”政策与...

  十年树木,百年树人,现今处于义务教育阶段的青少年很大程度上决定着未来30年中国的发展。2021年,“双减”政策出台以来,许多教育专家对学校教育的未来和青少年的健康发展进行了积极的讨论和深刻的思考。

  本期精选内容以“双减”政策背景下的学校体育这一主题,推荐文章《“双减”政策与学校体育发展》,文章选自2021年第11期《上海体育学院学报》。

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  双语10bet多少提现精要库精选文章展示

  “双减”政策与学校体育发展

  “Double Reduction” policy and the development of school sports

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  摘要

  2021年7月24日,中共中央办公厅、国务院办公厅印发《关于进一步减轻义务教育阶段学生作业负担和校外培训负担的意见》(简称“双减”政策)。为解读“双减”政策对学校体育和青少年健康发展的深层次影响以及学校体育的应对之策,本刊组织国内6名专家对“‘双减’政策与学校体育发展”进行专题研讨。北京体育大学任海认为,学校体育面临的核心问题是如何让学生变被动参与为主动投入,“不严肃”的“玩”承载着极为严肃的教育使命,其为孩子们的健康成长提供不可或缺的身体和精神养料。“玩”是义务教育阶段学校体育的灵魂。因此,应利用“双减”政策的契机,让“学生在体育锻炼中享受乐趣”,通过“玩”将“被动体育”变为“主动体育”。北京师范大学毛振明10bet不能提现 认为,须从新时代中国发展的高度审视中国教育的现实问题以10bet注册 及“双减”的深刻意涵。“双减”既是需要把握的“机”又是必须警惕的“危”。应通过“双减”助力补齐学生体质健康短板,建设体教融合相关特色学校,实现体育课程“教会、勤练、常赛”,促进学生体育学业评价和升学体育考试的科学化,使体育与劳动、国防、安全、科技、艺术教育相结合。上海体育学院唐炎认为,学校体育欲从“双减”政策产生的潜在时间中获取属于自己的实际时间,高等体育院系、学校体育研究10BET体育投注 院所和各级体育教研机构应紧密合作,按项目构建从基本动作技能到专项运动技能的一体化运动技能等级标准。中小学应在体育课程安排上打破按现有行政编班开展体育教学的方式,按项目兴趣编班上体育课,招聘项目特长优势明显的毕业生为体育教师,参照“教会、勤练、常赛”的学校体育工作新要求,重新规划校园体育活动的开展方式。华东师范大学汪晓赞认为,“双减”政策下学校体育应做到“三个坚守”:坚守学校体育的主阵地,让运动场更有“温度”;坚守青少年体质健康下降的底线,让全民共享学校体育的“红利”;坚守以体育人的功能与价值,让学生享受体育10bet.com带来的“乐趣”。同时,应做到“三个突破”:突破固有教育思维,从“传统体育”向“新时代体育”转变;突破固有教学模式,从“孤军奋战”向“家校社联动”转变;突破固有评价体系,从“单一评价”向“综合评价”转变。浙江师范大学邵伟德认为,应基于“双减”政策为改革课外体育活动提供的契机,形成“一主体、二主线、三保障”的课外体育活动质量提升路径,即:以“运动俱乐部”为主体,以“运动竞赛”“分层管理”为主线,以“政策规范”“学校支持”“校内外合作”为保障,协同提升课外体育活动质量。上海市新中高级中学徐阿根认为,“双减”政策背景下学校体育应在体育教学理念与方法、体育课程设置与内容、学校体育活动与竞赛等方面优化实践策略,为“构建教育良好生态,促进学生全面发展、健康成长”奠定基础。

  On July 24,2021,the General Office of the CPC Central Committee and the General Office of the State Council issued the Opinions on Further Reducing the Burden of Homework and off-Campus Training for Compulsory Education Students(hereinafter referred to as the “Double Reduction” policy. In order to interpret the impacts of the “Double Reduction” policy on the health development of school sports and teenagers,as well as the response of school sports,six Chinese experts were invited to share their views on the “‘Double Reduction” policy and the development of school sports.” Ren Hai from Beijing Sport University believes that the key issue for school sports is how to turn students’ passive participation into active involvement. The “unserious” “play” carries a serious educational mission and offers indispensable physical and mental nourishments for the healthy growth of children.“Play” is the soul of school sports in the compulsory education stage, and the “Double Reduction” policy should therefore be exploited to let “students enjoy fun in physical exercise” and turn “passive sports” into “active sports” through “play.” Mao Zhenming from Beijing Normal University holds that the practical problems in Chinese education and the profound meaning of “Double Reduction” should be examined from the perspective of China’s development in the new era.“Double Reduction” policy is both an opportunity and a challenge. The policy can help students improve physical health,facilitate the building of specialized schools featuring sport-education integration,and ensures that sports courses deliver practical outcomes through regular practice and competition. It can also upgrade sports and academic evaluation system through combination with labor,national defense,security,science and technology, and art education. Tang Yan from Shanghai University of Sport argues that school physical education should fully make use of the time before the “Double Reduction” policy takes real effects. In other words,sports departments in schools of higher education,school sports research institutes, and physical education teaching and research institutions at all levels should work closely to establish an integrated standard for sports skill levels,ranging from the basic action skills to special sports skills.Primary and secondary schools are suggested to organize sports teaching classes based on interests, and graduates with prominent sports accomplishments can be recruited as sports teachers. Following the requirements that sports courses must deliver practical outcomes through regular practice and competition, the way sports activities are arranged should be re-planed. Wang Xiaozan from East China Normal University considers that with respect to the “Double Reduction” policy,school sports should uphold “three stick-to,” namely, to stick to the main position of school sports to make the sports field a warm place, stick to the bottom line of avoiding youth physical health from declining and share the school sports good for all, and stick to the value of nurturing students through sports and letting them enjoy the fun of sports. At the same time,“three break throughs” should be achieved, namely, to break through the inherent educational thinking,or transitioning from “traditional sports” to “new-era sports,” break through the inherent teaching mod,or transitioning from “one man army” to “home-school-society linkage,” and break through the inherent evaluation system,or transitioning from “single evaluation” to “comprehensive evaluation.” Shao Weide from Zhejiang Normal University maintains that extracurricular sports activity quality should be improved through “one main body,two main lines,and three guarantees” ( with sports club as the main body,sports competitions and hierarchical management as the main lines,and policy regulations,school support and internal and external school cooperation as the guarantees). Xu A’gen from Shanghai Xinzhong Senior High School deems that school physical education should optimize strategies in sports teaching concept and methods,physical education curriculum and content,school sports activities and competitions under “Double Reduction” policy,to underpin good education ecology, and promote the all-round development and healthy growth of students.

  精选段落

  近代以来,身体游戏对青少年独特而有效的教育价值受到教育家们的高度关注,游戏与身体活动在教育维度的结合演化出竞技运动这一极富教育价值的身体游戏。今天我们说的学校里的“操场”(playground),其本意并非“操练场”,而是“玩乐场”或“游戏场”,孕育了我们熟悉的大部分运动项目,这些运动项目建构了学校体育的“骨干”,如足篮排三大球、田径、体操等运动均发端于学校,遍及各地的运动会也源于学校。蔚为壮观的竞技运动体系,其实质就是“玩耍”“游戏”,其核心价值就是教育。就连今天声名赫赫的奥运会(Olympic Games)也可被译为“奥林匹克游戏”,法国教育家顾拜旦将其视为教育青少年的重要方式。

  In modern times, the unique and effective educational value of physical play for young people has received huge attention from educators. The combination of play and physical activity in the educational sector breed competitive sports, which is of great educational value.The “playground” at schools we often talk about today is not originally meant to be a “ground for practice,” but a “ground for leisure” or a “ground for games.” The playground was the birthplace of most of familiar sports that formed the “backbone” of school sports, such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, track and field, gymnastics, and other sports that originated in schools, as well as sports games throughout the world. The essence of the spectacular competitive sports system is “play” and “games,” and its core value is education. Even today’s prestigious Olympic Games can be translated as “奥林匹克游戏(meaning games at the Olympic),” and the French educator Coubertin saw it as an important way to educate the young.

  可见,“不严肃”的“玩”其实承载着极为严肃的教育使命,为孩子们的成长提供不可或缺的身体和精神养料。

  Thus, the “unserious” “play” carries a serious educational mission and offers indispensable physical and mental nourishments for the healthy growth of children.

  “双减”并不是孤立的动作,国家为强化青少年教育与权利保护打出“组合拳”。在这套“组合拳”中,“清朗行动”旨在荡涤严重影响青少年身心健康发展的“饭圈文化”,对网络游戏的清理行动旨在消除青少年的“网瘾”,“体教融合”旨在促进青少年的文化课学习与身体锻炼的协调发展,“课程改革”旨在将核心素养和学科素养贯彻到中小学生的课程学习中,“劳动教育”旨在培养尊重劳动、具有劳动本领的时代新人,“国防教育”旨在培养知国防、敬国防、爱国防和参国防的具有爱国主义和尚武精神的一代新人,等等。近一段时间,面向青少年教育的举措层出不穷,“双减”是其中的“硬核”和“重锤”,因为不把中小学生及其家长从“作业负担”和“校外培训负担”的枷锁中解放出来,培养正确“三观”、品德素养、体育素养、文艺素养、劳动精神、国防意识、健康素养、强健体魄等都将是无源之水和无本之木。

  “Double Reduction” policy is not an isolated action, but a “combination attack” that aims to strengthen youth education and rights protection. In this “ combination attack,” the “Qing Lang (清朗clear and bright) Campaign” aims to rectify the “Fandom culture” that takes a heavy toll on the physical and mental health of young people, and this clean-up action of online games strives to eliminate the “Internet addiction” of young people. “Sports-education Integration” aims to promote the coordinated development of cultural studies and physical exercise for young people. In the “Curriculum Reform,” the curriculum at primary and secondary schools are expected to cultivate students with core literacy and subject literacy. The purpose of “Labor Education” is to cultivate a new generation of students who respect labor and have the ability to work. “National Defense Education” strives to cultivate a new generation with patriotism and martial spirit who know, respect, love and participate in national defense. There have been numerous initiatives for youth education, of which “Double Reduction” is the most influential. Not freeing primary and secondary school students and their parents from the shackles of “homework burden” and “off-campus training burden,” cultivating students with correct outlooks, strong physics, morality, arts awareness, labor literacy and national defense awareness, will be like water without a source.

  中小学需要在体育课程安排上打破按现有行政编班开展体育教学的方式,根据年级人数规模和学校体育场地资源情况,将同一年级(或同一年级部分班级)学生按项目兴趣编班安排在同一时间上体育课。考虑到小学低年级(一、二年级)学生的体能基础和动作操控能力弱,还不足以支撑其进行技能较为复杂的项目活动,建议这种编班方式从三、四年级开始。在此之前,仍然以行政编班的方式开展以游戏化为主、以基本动作技能为主要内容的体育教学。

  Primary and secondary schools need to give up the existing administrative grouping of physical education classes in curriculum setting; instead, students of the same grade (or classes in the same grade) should be arranged to the same physical education classes based on their interests, in accordance with the size of the grade and the physical education venue.Considering that students in the lower grades of elementary school (grades 1 and 2) have weak physical bases and motor manipulation skills, and not suitable for more complex skills, it is recommended that this type of class formation begin with grades 3 and 4. Physical education that is based on gamification and focused on basic movement skills will continue for below-grade 3 students in the way of administrative grouping.

  随着“双减”政策的落地实施,“热”起来的学校体育是否真的够好、够有效、够持久,自然涉及学校体育评价问题,这将使原本就颇具争议的学校体育评价引起更多的社会关注和承担更大的舆论压力。这同时也是深入推进学校体育评价改革的重要契机。各级各类学校应建立日常参与、体质监测和运动技能测试相结合的考核机制,同时客观记录学生日常体育参与情况和体质健康监测结果,定期向家长反馈,号召社会各方力量互相监督支持,确保学校体育改革落地落实。如今学校体育工作的困境与学校教育评价体系不完善有着必然联系,主要表现在以下两方面:①针对学校体育工作的评价体系不健全;②存在体育与健康课堂教学评价方法过于单一等问题。“双减”政策的出台对学校体育工作提出了新的要求,评价时应重点考虑其学科特点,做到“改进结果性评价,强化过程性评价,探索增值性评价,健全综合性评价”。同时,重点关注信息技术在教育评价过程中的应用,努力提高学校体育评价的科学性、专业性与客观性,以达到“以评促教、以评促改”的作用,充分发挥评价的反馈、导向、激励和改进功能。

  As the “Double Reduction” policy is put in place, one issue that remains to be evaluated is whether popular school sports are good, effective and sustainable enough. This will bring more social attention to and put more public pressure on the already controversial school sports evaluation, but this is also an opportunity to step up school sports evaluation reform. Schools at all levels should establish an assessment mechanism that combines daily participation, physical fitness monitoring, and sports skills testing, while objectively recording students’ daily sports participation and physical fitness monitoring results. They should also report results regularly to parents, and call on all social forces to monitor and support each other to ensure that the school sports reform is implemented on the ground. The dilemma of school sports work today is inevitably linked to the imperfect evaluation system of school education, mainly in the following two aspects. (1) The evaluation system for school physical education is not all-round enough; and (2) the classroom teaching evaluation method for sports and health is too simplex. “Double Reduction” policy poses new requirements for school physical education: the evaluation should focus on the characteristics of the subject, improve the result-based evaluation, strengthen the process evaluation, explore the value-added evaluation, and improve the comprehensive evaluation. At the same time, information technology should be applied in the process of education evaluation to make it more scientific, professional, and objective. In this case, evaluation can also improve teaching and reform. The feedback, guidance, motivation, and improvement functions of evaluation can thus be fully displayed.

  “二主线”是指以“运动竞赛”“分层管理”为主线。首先,课外运动俱乐部活动应以“运动竞赛”为主线。“教会、勤练、常赛”是近年来学校体育倡导的先进理念,“体育竞赛是学校里每位学生都应参与的一件事,学完体育一定要参加体育竞赛。只有参加体育竞赛,才能够实现学校体育锤炼意志、健全人格的功能”。课堂教学侧重于“学与练”,课外体育活动侧重于“练与赛”,因此,课外体育活动通过“以赛带练,练赛结合”的方式对复习、巩固与深化课堂教学内容起到关键作用。另外,若缺失了运动竞赛,学生对课外体育活动将失去兴趣与动力。其次,课外运动俱乐部运作应以“分层管理”为主线。尽管选择同一运动俱乐部的学生均有共同志趣,但他们之间仍有较大差异,为达成课外体育活动的最佳效果,需要对学生进行分层管理,对不同层次水平的学生因材施教,以谋求全体学生的共同发展。

  “Two main lines” refer to sports competitions and hierarchical management. First, extracurricular sports club activities should take “sports competition” as the main line.Delivering practical outcomes through regular practice and competition is the advanced idea advocated by school sports in recent years. “Sports competition should be joined by every student in school. After learning sports, students must take part in sports competition. Only through sports competition can schools hone the will and perfect the personality of students.” Classroom teaching focuses on “learning and practice,” while extracurricular sports activities revolve around “practice and competition.” Therefore, extracurricular sports activities play a key role in reviewing, consolidating, and deepening classroom teaching content through “combining practice with competition.” Without sports competitions, students will lose interest and motivation in extracurricular sports activities. Second, extracurricular sports club activities should take “hierarchical management” as the main line.Although students who choose the same sports club have same interests, there are still huge differences between them. To give play to the role of extracurricular sports activities to the fullest extent, it is necessary to manage students hierarchically and apply individualized 10bet移动手机端 teaching for the common development of all.

  当前,部分中小学体育课和课外体育活动依然存在练习手段单一乏味、学生练习体验不足、课堂氛围沉闷等问题,导致学生在体育学习中感受不到乐趣,处于被动状态,身体素质和学习效率低下。造成这一现象的根本原因在于体育教师的教学理念滞后,教学方法陈旧。因此,体育教师应加强新课程、新教材的研学,立足“教会、勤练、常赛”的教学理念,以结构化教学为抓手,围绕教学单元划分和单元教学设计2个重点,研究课程教材,研习教法,在体育教学实践中苦练基本功,不断提升教学素养。同时,体育教师应“读懂”学生,在了解学生需求的基10bet 官网础上研究学法,通过学生体育学习的动机激励、身体练习的情感体验变化创新体育教学方法,从而提高教学质量和效率,使体育课与课外体育活动课成为受学生欢迎的课程。

  In some primary and secondary schools, physical education classes and extracurricular physical activities are faced with multiple challenges: practice method is simple and boring; students experience is not deep and profound; classroom atmosphere is dull and subdued. As a consequence, those passive students with low physical quality and learning efficiency cannot feel fun in physical education learning. The root cause is that the teaching philosophy of teachers 10bet体育的微博is backward and the teaching methods are old. In this case, teachers need to work on new curriculum and new teaching materials. Based on the philosophy of delivering practical outcomes through regular practice and competition and structural teaching, teachers are suggested to explore new teaching 10bet官网中文登录materials and methods focusing on the division of teaching units and the design of unit teaching, hone their basic practical teaching skills and improve the teaching quality. Meanwhile, physical education teachers should “know” what students need and improve learning methods through the motivation of students’ physical learning and emotional experience changes of physical exercises. This action hopes to improve the teaching quality and efficiency, and make physical education class and extracurricular sports activities 10bet博彩博十官网登录popular courses for students.

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